Portal Vein Embolization before Right Hepatectomy or Extended Right Hepatectomy Using Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate Foam: Technique and Initial Results

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To evaluate the safety and efficacy of portal vein embolization (PVE) with sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS) foam.

Materials and Methods:

A single-center retrospective review of 35 patients (27 men and 8 women; mean age, 61 y) who underwent PVE with STS foam was performed. The technical success rate, rate of PVE at producing adequate future liver remnant (FLR) hypertrophy, and rate of disease progression precluding resection after PVE were analyzed. Complications of PVE and liver resection after PVE were recorded.


PVE was performed on 35 patients before right hepatic resection for both primary and secondary hepatic malignancies (22 hepatocellular carcinoma, 10 metastasis, 2 cholangiocarcinoma, 1 invasive gallbladder carcinoma). Technical success was achieved in 97.1% (34 of 35) of patients. Mean FLR of the total estimated liver volume increased from 24.5% (SD, 7.7%) to 36.5% (SD, 14.5%), a mean percentage increase of 48.8% (SD, 34.3%). PVE produced adequate FLR hypertrophy in 31 of 35 patients (88.6%). Proposed right hepatectomy was subsequently performed in 27 patients (77.1%). One patient remains scheduled for surgery, two had peritoneal spread at surgery and resection was aborted, two had disease progression on imaging after PVE, and three had inadequate FLR hypertrophy with no surgery. One major complication was observed related to PVE that involved nontarget embolization to segment III, which was managed conservatively.


Preoperative PVE with STS foam is a safe and effective method to induce hypertrophy of the FLR.

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