To describe the technique, technical success, and complications of prostate fiducial marker implantation using transrectal ultrasound (US) guidance in patients undergoing image-guided radiation therapy.Materials and Methods:
A retrospective review was performed of patients who underwent fiducial marker placement from January 2010–April 2013. In each case, gold markers were placed in the prostate using transrectal US guidance. Computed tomography (CT) was performed after the procedure and evaluated to confirm correct placement. Technical success, complications, and development of symptoms during radiotherapy were reviewed.Results:
Transrectal US–guided fiducial marker placement was performed on 75 patients (mean age, 62 y; range, 48–79 y) with a mean Gleason score of 7.25 (range, 6–10). Fiducial marker placement was confirmed in the intended location of the prostate or prostate bed for 297 of 300 markers (99%) on follow-up CT imaging. Two markers were placed just outside the prostate capsule, and one marker was lost. Complications included sepsis (n = 1; 1.3%), self-limiting perirectal or intraprostatic hemorrhage (n = 3; 4%), nausea (n = 1; 1.3%), transient hypotension (n = 1; 1.3%), epididymitis (n = 1; 1.3%), and urinary tract infection (n = 1; 1.3%). Complications were seen more frequently in patients with high tumor grade (P = .001) and in patients who developed metastatic disease (P = .01).Conclusions:
Transrectal US–guided implantation of fiducial markers is technically feasible, is well tolerated, and has a good safety profile.