Impact of transrenal aortic endograft placement on endovascular graft repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms

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Abstract

Purpose:

Successful endovascular repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) requires the creation of a hemostatic seal between the endograft and the underlying aortic wall. A short infrarenal aortic neck may be responsible for incomplete aneurysm exclusion and procedural failure. Sixteen patients who had an endograft positioned completely below the lowest renal artery and 37 patients in whom a porous portion of an endograft attachment system was deliberately placed across the renal arteries were studied to identify if endograft positioning could impact on the occurrence of incomplete aneurysm exclusion.

Methods:

Fifty-three patients underwent aortic grafting constructed from a Palmaz balloon expandable stent and an expandable polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) graft implanted in an aorto-ilio-femoral, femoral-femoral configuration. Arteriography, duplex ultrasonography and spiral CT scans were performed in each patient before and after endografting to evaluate for technical success, the presence of endoleaks, and renal artery perfusion.

Results:

There was no statistically significant difference in patient demography, AAA size, or aortic neck length or diameter between patients who had their endografts placed below or across the renal arteries. However, significantly more proximal aortic endoleaks occurred in those patients with infrarenal endografts (P ≤ .05). Median serum creatinine level before and after endografting was not significantly different between the 2 patient subgroups, with the exception of 2 patients who had inadvertent coverage of a single renal orifice by the endograft. Median blood pressure and the requirement for antihypertensive therapy remained the same after transrenal aortic stent grafting. Significant renal artery compromise did not occur after appropriately positioned transrenal stents as shown by means of angiography, CT scanning, and duplex ultrasound scan. Mean follow-up time was 10.3 months (range, 3 to 18 months). Patients who had significant renal artery stenosis (≥50%) before aortic endografting did not show progression of renal artery stenosis after trans-renal endografting. Two patients with transrenal aortic stent grafts had inadvertent coverage of 1 renal artery by the endograft because of device malpositioning, which resulted in nondialysis dependent renal insufficiency. In addition, evidence of segmental renal artery infarction (<20% of the kidney), which did not result in an apparent change in renal function, was shown by means of follow-up CT scans in 2 patients with transrenal endografts.

Conclusion:

Transrenal aortic endograft fixation using a balloon expandable device in patients with AAAs can result in a significant reduction in the risk of proximal endoleaks. Absolute attention to precise device positioning, coupled with the use of detailed imaging techniques, should reduce the risk of inadvertent renal artery occlusion from malpositioning. Long-term follow-up is essential to determine if there will be late sequelae of transrenal fixation of endografts, which could adversely effect renal perfusion.

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