Common iliac artery aneurysm: Expansion rate and results of open surgical and endovascular repair

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Abstract

Objectives:

To assess expansion rate of common iliac artery aneurysms (CIAAs) and define outcomes after open repair (OR) and endovascular repair (EVAR).

Methods:

Clinical data of 438 patients with 715 CIAAs treated between 1986 and 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Size, presentations, treatments, and outcomes were recorded. Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank tests and χ2 test were used for analysis.

Results:

Interventions for 715 CIAAs (median, 4 cm; range, 2-13 cm) were done in 512 men (94%) and 26 women (6%); 152 (35%) had unilateral and 286 (65%) had bilateral CIAAs. Group 1 comprised 377 patients (633 CIAAs) with current or previously repaired abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Group 2 comprised 15 patients (24 CIAAs) with associated internal iliac artery aneurysm (IIAA). Group 3 comprised 46 patients (58 isolated CIAAs). Median expansion rate of 104 CIAAs with at least two imaging studies was 0.29 cm/y; hypertension predicted faster expansion (0.32 vs 0.14 cm/y,P= .01). A total of 175 patients (29%) were symptomatic. The CIAA ruptured in 22 patients (5%, median, 6 cm; range, 3.8-8.5 cm), and the associated AAA ruptured in 20 (4%). Six (27%) ilioiliac or iliocaval fistulas developed. Repairs were elective in 396 patients (90%) and emergencies in 42 (10%). OR was performed in 394 patients (90%) and EVAR in 44 (10%). The groups had similar 30-day mortality: 1% for elective, 27% for emergency repairs (P< .001); 4% after OR (elective, 1%; emergency, 26%), and 0% after EVAR. No deaths occurred after OR of arteriovenous fistula. Complications were more frequent and hospitalization was longer after OR than EVAR (P< .05). Mean follow-up was 3.7 years (range, 1 month-17.5 years). The groups had similar 5-year primary (95%) and secondary patency rates (99.6%). At 3 years, secondary patency was 99.6% for OR and 100% for EVAR (P= .66); freedom from reintervention was similar after OR and EVAR (83% vs 69%,P= .17), as were survival rates (76% vs 77%,P= .70).

Conclusions:

The expansion rate of CIAAs is 0.29 cm/y, and hypertension predicts faster expansion. Because no rupture of a CIAA <3.8 cm was observed, elective repair of asymptomatic patients with CIAA ≥3.5 cm seems justified. Although buttock claudication after EVAR remains a concern, results at 3 years support EVAR as a first-line treatment for most anatomically suitable patients who require CIAA repair. Patients with compressive symptoms or those with AVF should preferentially be treated with OR.

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