Surgical revision of complicated false and true vascular access-related aneurysms

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Abstract

Purpose:

This prospective observational study examined the effect of revision surgery in patients who present solely with complicated arteriovenous access (AVA)-related aneurysms.

Methods:

The demographics and comorbid conditions of 44 hemodialysis access patients who presented with complicated true or false AVA-related aneurysms and underwent revision surgery during a 7-year period were prospectively entered into our AVA database. Also recorded were AVA characteristics before and after revision. Arteriovenous access anatomy was evaluated preoperatively using color Doppler ultrasonography, and AVA adequacy was assessed in all patients postoperatively after the first needle puncture and every month thereafter. Postintervention access function and primary patency rates were analyzed. Patency was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared between groups of patients with different AVA characteristics before and after revision using the log-rank test.

Results:

The cases of initial AVA with complicated aneurysms comprised 16 radiocephalic, 8 brachiocephalic, 2 basilic vein transposition, and 18 prosthetic fistulas (7 and 11 of the lower and upper arm, respectively), of which 42 were dysfunctional and 2 had thrombosed early at presentation. Primary indications for revision were danger of aneurysm rupture in 26, duplication in graft aneurysm diameter in 18, painful aneurysm in 12, stenosis due to partial aneurysm thrombosis in 12, shortness of the potential cannulation area in 12, aneurysm enlargement in 4, infected aneurysm in 2, and completely thrombosed aneurysm in 2. The mean postintervention primary patencies were 93%, 82%, 57%, and 32% at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. The outcomes was better in autogenous than prosthetic corrections, in true than false aneurysms, in patients with two or fewer than more than 2 previous AVAs on revised arms, and in forearm than upper-arm corrections (P= .0197,P= .004,P= .0022, andP= .0225, respectively).

Conclusions:

Surgical revision of complicated false and true AVA-related aneurysms reveals acceptable postintervention primary patency rates and therefore is justified. This outcome measure was superior in the following specific groups of corrections: autogenous were better than prosthetic, true aneurysms were better than false aneurysms, patients with one or two previous AVAs in the revised arm were better than those with more than two previous accesses in the revised arm, and finally, forearms were better than those in the upper arm.

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