Inferior outcomes of autogenous infrainguinal bypass in Hispanics: An analysis of ethnicity, graft function, and limb salvage

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Abstract

Introduction

Recent evidence suggests disparities exist among racial groups with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Hispanics (HI) are the fastest growing demographic in the United States, but little outcome data is available for this population. Therefore, we undertook this study to compare the results of autogenous infrainguinal bypass grafting in HI to Caucasians (CA) and African Americans (AA).

Methods

This was a comparative cohort study of prospectively collected registry data of infrainguinal bypass performed at a tertiary center. Patient demographics and comorbidities, operative indications, bypass graft characteristics, and postoperative courses were analyzed. Cumulative patency rates, limb salvage, mortality, and factors associated with these outcomes were determined using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards models.

Results

From January 1, 1985, through December 31, 2007, 1646 consecutive patients (1408 CA, 57 HI, and 181 AA) underwent 1646 autogenous infrainguinal reconstructions. HI and AA were younger and more often diabetic than CA but HI had less chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) and dialysis-dependence than AA. AA, but not HI, more commonly underwent bypass for critical limb ischemia (CLI) in comparison to CA (AA 90% vs CA 80%,P< .0001; HI 86%). HI and AA bypass grafts had inflow and outflow distal to that in CA. Perioperative mortality (2.3%) and morbidity were similar between groups. Five-year primary patency (± standard error [SE]) was significantly lower in HI compared to CA and similar to that in AA (HI 54% ± 7% vs CA 69% ± 1%,P= .02; AA 58% ± 4%). Cox proportional hazard modeling showed high-risk conduit, age <65, CLI, female gender, and AA race were risk factors for failure of primary patency. Secondary patency of HI grafts, unlike AA, was not different than that in CA. Five-year limb salvage (± SE) was significantly lower in HI compared to CA and similar to that in AA (HI 80% ± 6% vs CA 91% ± 1%,P= .004; AA 83% ± 3%). Hispanic ethnicity, CLI, high-risk conduit, age <65, CRI, female gender, and diabetes were significant predictors of limb loss.

Conclusion

Autogenous infrainguinal bypass surgery in HI is associated with primary patency and limb salvage inferior to that of CA and similar to that of AA, despite HI rates of CLI equivalent to CA and HI comorbidities less severe than AA. HI ethnicity was an independent predictor of limb loss. Our data provides evidence of outcome disparities in HI treated aggressively for their PAD. Further investigation with regard to biologic and social factors is required to delineate the reasons for these inferior outcomes in HI patients.

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