Role of type II endoleak in sac regression after endovascular repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid



Endovascular repair (EVAR) of infrarenal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is increasingly used in patients with suitable aortic morphology conforming to device-specific instructions for use. Despite improvements in graft design, type II endoleak (EL-2) from the inferior mesenteric artery (EL-IMA) or the lumbar artery (EL-LA) remains the Achilles' heel of EVAR. The objective of this study was to evaluate the natural history of the AAA sac after EVAR. We hypothesized that persistent EL-2 would be associated with inferior AAA sac volume regression.


A retrospective analysis was performed on all nonruptured AAA treated by elective EVAR using Food and Drug Administration-approved endografts from January 2005 to December 2008 in our facility. Review of medical records and preoperative and follow-up computed tomography angiograms at 1, 6, and 12 months was performed. Patients with type I, III, and IV endoleaks were excluded, as were those lost to all follow-up. AAA size and volume were analyzed using TeraRecon software (Aquarius Intuition, Foster City, Calif). Change in AAA sac volume was compared in patients with and without EL-2, and with an occluded vs patent IMA.


The study cohort comprised 191 patients (161 men, 30 women) with a mean age of 74 years. The mean preoperative AAA diameter was 5.5 cm (range, 4–11 cm), and mean volume was 137.45 cm3. EL-2 was present in 24% at completion of EVAR and in 9% at a mean follow-up of 6 months (range 4–8 months). Completion angiography at 1 month showed 63% of EL-2 had resolved. Those with EL-2 present at 1 month had statistically inferior sac regression compared with those who did not (23% reduction vs 2% increase at 1 year; P = .002). Preoperatively, the IMA was occluded by coils or was chronically occluded in 82 patients vs 109 patients who had a patent IMA. At the 6-month follow-up, patients with an occluded IMA had an EL-2 rate of 2.4% vs 14.7% in those with a patent IMA (P = .005 by t-test). Sac volume regression was 21.8% in those with an occluded IMA vs 13.2% in those with a patent IMA (P = .004 by t-test). Regression in AAA sac volume was highly significant in patients with occluded IMA, at 30% vs 16% at 1 year (P = .0018 by two-sided t-test).


The presence of persistent EL-2 after EVAR results in inferior AAA sac regression. A preoperatively patent IMA is associated with increased rates of EL-2 and inferior AAA sac regression. Consideration should be given to preoperative occlusion of a patent IMA before EVAR.

Related Topics

    loading  Loading Related Articles