Treatment and outcomes of aortic endograft infection

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Abstract

Objective:

This study examined the medical and surgical management and outcomes of patients with aortic endograft infection after abdominal endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) or thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR).

Methods:

Patients diagnosed with infected aortic endografts after EVAR/TEVAR between January 1, 2004, and January 1, 2014, were reviewed using a standardized, multi-institutional database. Demographic, comorbidity, medical management, surgical, and outcomes data were included.

Results:

An aortic endograft infection was diagnosed in 206 patients (EVAR, n = 180; TEVAR, n = 26) at a mean 22 months after implant. Clinical findings at presentation included pain (66%), fever/chills (66%), and aortic fistula (27%). Ultimately, 197 patients underwent surgical management after a mean of 153 days. In situ aortic replacement was performed in 186 patients (90%) using cryopreserved allograft in 54, neoaortoiliac system in 21, prosthetic in 111 (83% soaked in antibiotic), and 11 patients underwent axillary-(bi)femoral bypass. Graft cultures were primarily polymicrobial (35%) and gram-positive (22%). Mean hospital length of stay was 23 days, with perioperative 30-day morbidity of 35% and mortality of 11%. Of the nine patients managed only medically, four of five TEVAR patients died after mean of 56 days and two of four EVAR patients died; both deaths were graft-related (mean follow-up, 4 months). Nineteen replacement grafts were explanted after a mean of 540 days and were most commonly associated with prosthetic graft material not soaked in antibiotic and extra-anatomic bypass. Mean follow-up was 21 months, with life-table survival of 70%, 65%, 61%, 56%, and 51% at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years, respectively.

Conclusions:

Aortic endograft infection can be eradicated by excision and in situ or extra-anatomic replacement but is often associated with early postoperative morbidity and mortality and occasionally with a need for late removal for reinfection. Prosthetic graft replacement after explanation is associated with higher reinfection and graft-related complications and decreased survival compared with autogenous reconstruction.

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