Revision using distal inflow is a safe and effective treatment for ischemic steal syndrome and pathologic high flow after access creation

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Abstract

Objective:

Ischemic steal syndrome (ISS) and pathologic high flow (HF) are a complications after hemodialysis access creation. Their management is complex and varied with most requiring surgical revision for correction of symptoms. Revision using distal inflow (RUDI) has been described in small series for the treatment of ISS. We present our experience with RUDI for the treatment of ISS and pathologic HF.

Methods:

We retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients who underwent RUDI for ISS from April, 2010 to March, 2014. Data collection included demographic characteristics, medical histories, subsequent procedures, volume flows, access usage, limb salvage, and patient survival.

Results:

We performed 29 RUDI procedures in 28 patients (16 women, 12 men). Indications for surgery were pathologic HF in 13 and ISS in 19. Ten percent had previous banding for ISS or HF. Sixty-nine percent of patients had a history of diabetes. Fifty-two percent had a history of atherosclerotic disease. Mean time to intervention from creation was 40 months (range, 6–88 months). Accesses included 1 upper arm graft and 27 brachial artery-based fistulas. Outflow included 25 cephalic veins and 3 basilic veins. Distalization targets were 19 radial arteries and 10 ulnar arteries. Mean flow reduction was 1191 mL/min. Primary assisted patency at 1 year was 74%. Secondary patency at 1 year was 87%. A single access was ligated for continued heart failure after RUDI. ISS symptom resolution was reported as complete in 69% and partial in 31%.

Conclusions:

RUDI is an effective and durable treatment of ISS and HF comparable with reported experiences with distal revascularization-interval ligation, proximalization of the arterial inflow, and banding. Patient selection is key for optimizing relief of symptoms and maintaining use of the access.

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