Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in octogenarians is associated with higher mortality compared with nonoctogenarians


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Abstract

Objective:Age is a well-known independent risk factor for death after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. However, there is significant debate about the utility of AAA repair in older patients. In this study, mortality outcomes after endovascular AAA repair (EVAR) and open AAA repair (OAR) in octogenarians (aged ≥80 years) were compared with younger patients (aged <80 years).Methods:All patients recorded in the Vascular Quality Initiative database (2002-2012) who underwent infrarenal AAA repair were included. Univariable and multivariable statistics were used to compare perioperative (30-day) and 1-year mortality outcomes between octogenarians vs nonoctogenarians for OAR and EVAR.Results:During the study period, 21,874 patients underwent AAA repair (OAR, 5765; EVAR, 16,109), including 4839 octogenarians (OAR, 765; EVAR, 4074) and 17,035 nonoctogenarians (OAR, 5000; EVAR, 12,035). Octogenarians (mean age, 83.0 ± 0.1 years) were less frequently male (66% vs 75%) and had a higher prevalence of congestive heart failure (9.9% vs 7.1%), chronic renal insufficiency (12.2% vs 7.5%), and a history of aortic surgery (14.3% vs 7.7%) compared with nonoctogenarians (P< .01 for all). Intraoperative use of blood transfusions and vasopressors was more common in octogenarians for OAR (blood: 3.3 ± 4.4 vs 1.8 ± 3.7 units; vasopressors: 45.2% vs 32.8%) and EVAR (blood: 0.43 ± 1.7 vs 0.31 ± 1.6 units; vasopressors: 7.6% vs 5.7%;P< .01 for all). Contrast dye volumes used during EVAR were similar in octogenarians and nonoctogenarians (108 ± 71 vs 107 ± 68 mL;P= .18). Perioperative mortality after OAR was 20.1% in octogenarians compared with 7.1% in nonoctogenarians (P< .01). Perioperative mortality after EVAR was 3.8% in the octogenarians compared with 1.6% in nonoctogenarians (P< .01). One-year mortality among octogenarians vs nonoctogenarians was 26% vs 9.7% for OAR and 8.9% vs 4.3% for EVAR (log-rank test,P< .01 for both). Multivariable analysis controlling for baseline and intraoperative differences between groups demonstrated that age ≥80 years increased the risk of 30-day and 1-year mortality after AAA repair by 223% and 187%, respectively (P< .01 for both).Conclusions:AAA repair should be approached with extreme caution in octogenarians. Perioperative and 1-year mortality rates after OAR are particularly high in the older population, suggesting that the appropriate aneurysm size threshold for OAR might be larger due to the greater operative risk in octogenarian patients.

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