Cranial nerve injury is associated with dual antiplatelet therapy use and cervical hematoma after carotid endarterectomy


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Abstract

Objective:To determine predictors of cranial nerve injury (CNI) after carotid endarterectomy (CEA).Methods:Consecutive CEAs performed over a 5-year period were enrolled in this study. Outcomes analyzed included 30-day major adverse event rate (composite of stroke, death, and myocardial infarction), death, stroke, disabling stroke, myocardial infarction, cervical hematoma and CNI rate, reoperation, and hospital readmission at 30 days.Results:There were 1258 CEAs were included in the study, 1168 (93%) were performed using an eversion technique. Patients with symptoms comprised 27% of the cohort (n = 340). At 30 days, there were no deaths, 23 major adverse events (1.8%), 11 strokes (0.9%: nine minor, two major), 12 myocardial infarctions (0.9%), 41 cervical hematomas (3.3%), 9 reoperations (0.7%) and 10 hospital readmissions (0.8%). Median duration of stay was 1 day (interquartile range, 1-2 days). CNI rate at discharge was 2.3% (n = 29). Two patients (9%) had more than one cranial nerve affected. The marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve was most frequently involved (n = 16; 52%), followed by the hypoglossal (n = 9; 29%), the vagus (n = 4; 13%), and the spinal accessory nerve (n = 2; 6%). Horner's syndrome, consistent with an injury to the cervical sympathetic chain, occurred in 13 patients (1%) who had a true cranial nerve affected as well. The vast majority (94%) of these CNIs and all Horner's syndrome neurapraxias were transient; only the two accessory lesions persisted at their follow-up visit (median, 32 months; range, 8-72 months). Significant predictors for CNI included diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-6.2;P= .048), cervical hematoma (OR, 41.7; 95% CI, 13.8-125.4;P< .001), and dual antiplatelet therapy (OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.7-11.4;P= .002).Conclusions:CNI is predominantly a transient complication, but is associated significantly with dual antiplatelet therapy use and the occurrence of a postoperative cervical hematoma. Scrupulous attention to hemostasis might reduce the incidence of CNI.

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