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With the growing need for reliable and durable upper arm hemodialysis access, we sought to compare the performance of a novel modified nontransposed brachiobasilic arteriovenous fistula (mNT-BBAVF) with that of the more traditional brachiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (BCAVF).Briefly, to construct an mNT-BBAVF, an incision is made on the ulnar side of the elbow. The brachial artery and basilic vein are then isolated, and a side-to-side anastomosis is performed without transposition of the basilic vein. Next, the proximal basilic vein and the perforating veins within the surgical field are ligated. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients who underwent either an mNT-BBAVF or a BCAVF between January 2011 and October 2014 to compare 1-year primary unassisted patency, cumulative patency, and complications. We also examined hemodynamic parameters of vessels in each fistula type.We identified a total of 84 patients: 45 had a BCAVF, and 39 had an mNT-BBAVF. The two groups were well matched for baseline characteristics. Maturation rates at 1 month were 97% for mNT-BBAVF and 96% for BCAVF. The 1-year primary unassisted patency was significantly higher in the mNT-BBAVF group than that in the BCAVF group (87% vs 67%; hazard ratio, 2.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-6.40;P= .03), although cumulative patency did not differ (90% vs 73%; hazard ratio, 2.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.98-6.96;P= .06). There were no differences in thrombosis, failure of maturation, bleeding, steal syndrome, arm swelling, aneurysm, and stenosis between the two groups during the 12-month study. Importantly, diameters and blood flow volumes of the proximal cephalic vein, distal cephalic vein, and distal basilic vein in patients who received an mNT-BBAVF increased significantly after 12 months. All three vessels met the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI) criteria for fistula maturation and were available for dialysis cannulation, whereas only the proximal cephalic vein in the BCAVF group met the maturation criteria and could be used for cannulation.mNT-BBAVF appeared to be an effective alternative to BCAVF for upper arm hemodialysis access.