Percutaneous embolization of arteriovenous malformations at the plantar aspect of the foot

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Peripheral arteriovenous malformations (AVM) remain most challenging among various congenital vascular malformations to be treated. Here we present three illustrative patients with Yakes type IIIb and type IV AVM at the plantar aspect of the foot who were successfully treated by minimally invasive embolization. The value of the Yakes AVM classification system to guide the therapeutic decision making by directing specific therapeutic procedures to specific AVM types defined by their angioarchitecture is demonstrated. Direct percutaneous AVM puncture with coiling of aneurysmal outflow vein and subsequent ethanol embolization is shown. Finally, the report illustrates that several AVM types can coexist.

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