High dose-rate brachytherapy for the treatment of lower extremity in-stent restenosis

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Abstract

Objective:

Historically, edge stenosis and late thrombosis limited the effectiveness of adjunctive endovascular brachytherapy (EVBT) for in-stent restenosis (ISR) after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and stenting. We evaluated an updated protocol of PTA and EVBT for ISR among patients with lower extremity occlusive disease.

Methods:

This is a retrospective, single-center review of patients treated with PTA and EVBT for ISR in the iliac and femoropopliteal segments between 2004 and 2012. A dose of 20 Gy was given at a depth of 0.5 mm beyond the radius of the largest PTA balloon using iridium 192, with at least 2-cm-long margins of radiation coverage proximal and distal to the injured area. Stents were assessed for patency by duplex ultrasound imaging at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months and then yearly. The primary end point was freedom from ≥50% restenosis in the treated segment at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. Patency data were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Secondary end points were early and late thrombotic occlusion.

Results:

Among 42 consecutive cases in 35 patients of EVBT for ISR in common or external iliac (9 [20.8%]) and superficial femoral or popliteal (33 [76.7%]) arteries, or both, 21 patients (50%) had claudication, asymptomatic hemodynamically significant stenoses were identified on duplex ultrasound imaging in 16 (38.1%), and 4 (9.8%) had critical limb ischemia. Mean treated length was 23.5 ± 12.3 cm over a mean duration of 16.1 ± 9.6 minutes. There was one technical failure (2.3%). Median post-EVBT follow-up time was 682 days (range, 1–2262 days). There were two (4.9%) and five (11.9%) cases of early and late thrombotic occlusions, respectively. There was one death, believed to be secondary to acute coronary syndrome. Primary, assisted primary, and secondary patency in the entire cohort was 75.2%, 89.1%, and 89.1%, respectively, at 1 year and 63.7%, 80.6%, and 85.6%, respectively, at 2 years.

Conclusions:

This contemporary protocol of PTA and adjunctive EVBT for lower extremity ISR, which is updated from those used in prior trials and includes a surveillance strategy that identifies at-risk stents for reintervention before occlusion, may be a promising treatment for lower extremity ISR at institutions where a close collaboration between vascular surgeons and radiation oncologists is feasible.

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