The effect of gender on outcomes after lower extremity revascularization

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Abstract

Objective:

The effect of gender on outcomes after lower extremity revascularization is controversial. The aim of our systemic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the gender-related outcomes after peripheral vascular interventions.

Methods:

We systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Database, and Scopus to identify studies comparing outcomes after revascularization according to gender. A random-effects model was used to pool outcomes. Time-to-event data were reported using hazard ratios (HRs) and dichotomous data were presented using odds ratios (ORs).

Results:

Included were 40 studies. Pooling of short-term outcomes after intervention showed that women had significantly increased risks of 30-day mortality (OR, 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11–1.55; P = .001), amputation (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02–1.12; P = .002), early graft thrombosis (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.28–1.90; P < .0001), embolization (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.24–2.17; P = .0005), incisional site complication (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.34–1.80; P < .0001), cardiac events (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.16–1.26; P < .0001), stroke (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.19–1.53; P < .0001), and pulmonary complication (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.03–1.12; P = .0006). No significant differences were found between women and men for short-term reinterventions (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.73–1.54; P = .74) and renal complications (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.76–1.39; P = .86). No significant differences in long-term outcomes between women and men were found, with similar rates of cumulative survival (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.97–1.24; P = .12), primary patency (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.00–1.30; P = .06), secondary patency (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.86–1.34; P = .54), and limb salvage (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.70–1.24; P = .63). However, in the open surgery subgroup, women had significantly reduced survival compared with men (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.01–1.44; P = .04).

Conclusions:

Women have inferior short-term outcomes but similar long-term outcomes compared with men after lower limb revascularization. A higher treatment threshold may be warranted when considering intervening on women with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease owing to the increased risks of postprocedural mortality and complications.

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