The fate of endovascular aortic aneurysm repair after 5 years monitored with duplex ultrasound imaging

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Background:Interventions for aortic aneurysm sac growth have been reported across multiple time points after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). We report the long-term outcomes of patients after EVAR monitored with duplex ultrasound (DUS) imaging with respect to the need for and type of intervention after 5 years.Methods:We report a series of patients who were monitored with DUS imaging for a minimum of 5 years after EVAR. DUS imaging was performed in an accredited noninvasive vascular laboratory, and computed tomography angiography was only performed for abnormal DUS findings.Results:There were 156 patients who underwent EVAR with follow-up >5 years (mean, 7.5 years; range, 5.1-14.5 years). Interventions for endoleak, graft limb stenosis, or thrombosis were performed in 44 patients (28%) at some time during follow-up. Of the 156 patients, 34 (22%) underwent their first intervention during the first 5 years (25 endoleaks, 9 limb stenoses, or occlusions). Four ruptures occurred, all in patients with their first intervention before 5 years. The remaining 10 patients (6%) underwent a first intervention >5 years after implantation: 3 for type I endoleak, 2 for type II endoleak with sac expansion, 2 for combined type I and II endoleaks 2 for type III endoleak, and 1 unknown type.Conclusions:Long-term follow-up of EVAR (mean, 7.5 years) revealed that approximately one in four patients will require intervention at some point during follow-up. First-time interventions were necessary in 22% of all patients in the first 5 years and in 6% of patients after 5 years, highlighting the need for continued graft surveillance beyond 5 years. All patients who had a first-time intervention after 5 years underwent an endoleak repair; none of these patients had a thrombosed limb or a rupture as a result of the endoleak.

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