Impact of iliac artery anatomy on the outcome of fenestrated and branched endovascular aortic repair

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Abstract

Objective:

Fenestrated and branched endovascular aneurysm repair (FB-EVAR) is a valid option to treat juxtarenal and pararenal abdominal aortic aneurysms and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms. Because successful deployment depends on complex maneuvers, hostile iliac artery anatomy (HIA) can prejudice the FB-EVAR outcome. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of HIA on FB-EVAR outcome.

Methods:

Between 2010 and 2015, all patients undergoing FB-EVAR were prospectively categorized according to iliac anatomy (friendly iliac artery anatomy [FIA] or HIA). HIA was defined as the presence of one of the following: severe (>90-degree) iliac angle, extensive (>50%) iliac circumferential calcification, hemodynamic iliac stenosis or obstruction, external iliac artery diameter <7 mm, or previous aortoiliac/femoral graft. Early end points were technical success (absence of type I or type III endoleak, target visceral vessel [TVV] loss, conversion to open repair), intraoperative adjunctive maneuvers (IAMs; iliac percutaneous transluminal angioplasty/stenting, surgical iliac conduit, intra-aortic graft rotations, several attempts of TVV cannulation), intraoperative technical problems (iliac rupture, significant endograft twisting, difficult TVV cannulations, TVV injuries, TVV loss), and 30-day mortality. Follow-up end points were survival, TVV patency, and freedom from reintervention.

Results:

Ninety-four patients (male, 87%; age, 73 ± 6 years) with 59 (63%) juxtarenal and pararenal abdominal aortic aneurysms and 35 (37%) thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms underwent FB-EVAR, for a total of 324 TVVs; 60 (64%) patients had HIA and 34 (36%) had FIA. Patients with HIA and FIA had similar preoperative clinical characteristics, except for coronary artery disease, peripheral artery occlusive disease, and American Society of Anesthesiologists class 4 (47% vs 24% [P = .03], 12% vs 0% [P = .04], and 28% vs 9% [P = .03], respectively). Technical success was 96% (HIA, 97%; FIA, 95%; P = .6). In HIA, adjunctive iliac procedures were performed in 32 cases (surgical conduit, 14 [15%]; percutaneous transluminal angioplasty/stenting, 27 [29%]). Endograft twisting and difficult TVV cannulation occurred in 13 (14%) and 33 (35%) cases, respectively (HIA 18% vs FIA 15% [P = .09]; HIA 28% vs FIA 21% [P = .03]). TVV cannulation failed in nine cases and injury occurred in five (TVV patency rate, 97.8%; HIA 94.7% vs FIA 98.3%; P = .3). One (1%) iliac rupture occurred in HIA, needing surgical repair. Overall, 44 (47%; HIA 55% vs FIA 25%; P = .03) IAMs were necessary. Perioperative mortality was 4% (HIA 3% vs FIA 5%; P = .9). At multivariate analysis, predictors of IAMs were external iliac diameter <7 mm (odds ratio [OR], 12.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2–71.4; P = .004) and extensive iliac calcifications (OR, 8.3; 95% CI, 1.4–50.0; P = .02). The mean follow-up was 24 ± 17 months, with an overall survival of 87% and 71% at 1 year and 3 years, respectively, significantly lower in HIA compared with FIA (at 3 years, HIA 60% vs FIA 92%; P = .02). On multivariate analysis, HIA was a significant predictor of late mortality (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.1–13.2; P = .04). Freedom from reintervention (87%) and 3-year TVV patency (92%) were similar in the two groups.

Conclusions:

HIA does not significantly affect the early outcome of FB-EVAR. However, in patients with HIA, procedures are technically more demanding and late mortality is increased. Iliac characteristics should be taken into account to correctly stratify the surgical risk in FB-EVAR.

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