Timely thrombectomy can improve patency of hemodialysis arteriovenous fistulas

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Abstract

Objective:

The urgency with which salvage of thrombosed vascular accesses for dialysis should be attempted remains unknown. We examined the effect of a timely thrombectomy approach on vascular access outcomes for dialysis.

Methods:

A before-and-after study was conducted with patients on hemodialysis who had undergone endovascular thrombectomy. A timely thrombectomy initiative (ie, salvage within 24 hours of thrombosis diagnosis) was started in July 2015 at our institution. Data about thrombectomy procedures, performed within 1 year before and after the initiative was introduced, were abstracted from an electronic database. Immediate outcomes and patency outcomes were compared between the preinitiative (control) and postinitiative (intervention) groups.

Results:

During the study period, 329 patients were enrolled, including 165 cases before and 164 cases after the initiative. The intervention group had more thrombectomy procedures performed within 24 hours (93% vs 55%; P < .01) and within 48 hours (97% vs 79%; P < .01) than the control group. No between-group differences in procedural success or clinical success rates were found. At 3 months, the intervention group had a higher postintervention primary patency rate than the control group, although this did not reach statistical significance (58% vs 48%; P = .06). After stratification into native or graft accesses, the patency benefit was observed in the native access group (68% vs 50%; P = .03) but not in the graft access group (50% vs 46%; P = .65). After adjusting for potential confounders, timely thrombectomy remained an independent predictor of postintervention primary patency (hazard ratio, 0.449; 95% confidence interval, 0.224–0.900; P = .02) for native dialysis accesses.

Conclusions:

Our results suggest that a timely thrombectomy approach, in which salvage is attempted within 24 hours of thrombosis diagnosis, improves postintervention primary patency of native but not graft accesses for dialysis.

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