Outcomes of thoracic endovascular aortic repair for chronic aortic dissections

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Abstract

Background:

Open surgical repair remains the “gold standard” treatment for chronic type B aortic dissection (cTBD) with aneurysm. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has gained popularity in recent years for the treatment of thoracic aortic diseases, including cTBD. We assessed the effectiveness of TEVAR in the treatment of cTBD using the Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) database.

Methods:

The VQI registry identified 4713 patients treated with TEVAR from July 2010 to November 2015, including 125 repairs for cTBD. We analyzed TEVAR outcomes in this cohort per the Society for Vascular Surgery reporting standards for TEVAR.

Results:

Median age was 65.0 years (interquartile range [IQR], 56.0-72.0 years), and 85 (68.0%) were male. Median aneurysm diameter was 5.5 cm (IQR, 4.8-6.3 cm). Sixty-two (49.6%) patients were asymptomatic on presentation, 57 (45.6%) were symptomatic, and 6 (4.8%) presented with rupture. Median length of stay was 8.0 days (IQR, 4.0-11.0 days). Fluoroscopy time was 17.3 minutes (IQR, 10.5-25.6 minutes). The distal landing zone was aortic zone 4 in 27 (21.6%) and aortic zone 5 and distal in 98 (78.4%) patients. Successful device delivery occurred in 123 (98.4%) patients. Conversion to open repair occurred in one (0.8%) patient. A type IA endoleak was present in 2 (1.6%), type IB endoleak in 2 (1.6%), and type II endoleak in 2 (1.6%) patients. Perioperative complications included stroke in 1 (0.8%), respiratory complications in 6 (4.8%), and spinal cord ischemia symptoms present at discharge in 3 (2.4%) patients. In-hospital mortality occurred in three (2.4%) patients. Reintervention was required in two (1.6%) patients for false lumen perfusion and in two (1.6%) patients for extension of the dissection. Follow-up was available for 43 patients at a median time of 239 days (IQR, 38-377 days). Median change in sac diameter was −0.2 cm (IQR, −0.5 to 0.1 cm). Sac shrinkage of 0.5 cm was noted in 12 (27.9%), with sac growth >0.5 cm in four (9.3%) patients. Extent of stent graft coverage did not affect sac shrinkage (P = .65). Patients with aneurysms ≥5.5 cm compared with <5.5 cm were more likely to demonstrate shrinkage (−0.6 cm vs 0.0 cm; 95% confidence interval, 0.3-11.7; P = .04).

Conclusions:

TEVAR for cTBD may be performed with acceptable rates of morbidity and mortality. Changes in sac diameter in the midterm are promising. Long-term data are needed to determine whether this approach is durable.

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