Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) continues to portend significant mortality, despite ruptured endovascular aneurysm repair (rEVAR), enhanced perioperative care, and endovascular balloon control (EBC) for hypotension. We review our academic institution's experience using a protocol of EBC for all hypotensive patients, irrespective of type of repair.Methods:
A retrospective review was conducted of 66 cases of rAAA treated at a single academic institution from 2007 to 2016 using EBC for hypotensive patients. Demographics, comorbidities, intraoperative parameters, and clinical outcomes were recorded. Patients were studied with respect to hemodynamic status, rEVAR, or ruptured open aortic repair in the setting of EBC for hypotension.Results:
rEVAR was performed in 43 patients (65%) and ruptured open aortic repair in 23 patients (35%). rAAA was treated in 51 men (77%). Mean rAAA size was 7.6 mm, and mean age of the patients was 73 years. Perioperative survival was 82%. Overall survival at 30 days, 1 year, and 5 years was 71%, 65%, and 52%. Blood transfusion and severe hypotension were significant predictors of mortality at 30 days on multivariable analysis (odds ratio of 1.2 [P = .08] and 39 [P = .03], respectively). Severe hypotension was defined as a mean arterial blood pressure <65 mm Hg and vasopressor use and was present in 59% of the cohort. Normotension was defined as an absence of these conditions and was present in 12%, with 29% of patients exhibiting moderate hypotension. There was no difference in 30-day survival between normotensive and moderately hypotensive patients. The 30-day survival for severely hypotensive patients was 61% vs 85% for moderately hypotensive patients (P = .003), with a significant difference between groups that persisted at 1 year (85% vs 51%; P = .008) and 5 years (66% vs 51%; P = .017).Conclusions:
Good midterm outcomes for moderately hypotensive and normotensive patients can be obtained using an EBC protocol for hypotension with a regionalized transport system directly to the operating room. Severely hemodynamically unstable rAAA patients still pose a significant challenge despite mitigation of hypotension by EBC, suggesting that survival may be compromised by factors other than hypotension alone. We still advocate for the use of EBC for all hypotensive patients as part of a defined rAAA protocol before definitive repair.