Ethnic disparities in outcomes of patients with complicated type B aortic dissection

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Abstract

Objective:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the difference in outcomes after endovascular intervention in patients with complicated type B aortic dissection (TBAD) based on ethnicity and blood pressure control.

Methods:

Between 2012 and 2016, there were 126 patients who underwent endovascular procedures for complicated TBAD at a single-institution quaternary referral center. Patients self-identified as African American (n = 53), white (n = 70), and Asian (n = 3). African American and white patients were compared on a number of variables, including age, ethnicity, insurance type, blood pressure, comorbidities, number of previous interventions, and number of antihypertension medications they were taking before intervention. Primary outcomes were survival and need for reintervention.

Results:

Kaplan-Meier estimates for survival for African Americans vs whites were 94% vs 89%, 91% vs 83%, 89% vs 79%, and 89% vs 76% at 30 days, 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years, respectively (P = .05). African Americans were younger overall (52.5 ± 11 years) vs whites (63.7 ± 14.7 years; P < .0001). African Americans required a significantly greater number of reinterventions (P = .007). They also had higher rates of chronic kidney disease (P = .01), smoking (P = .03), and cocaine use (P = .02) and were more likely to be on Medicaid (P = .02). Hypertension was poorly controlled in both groups, with the percentage of patients with uncontrolled hypertension (systolic >140 mm Hg) preoperatively, postoperatively, and 30 days after intervention at 32%, 32%, and 39%. There was no significant difference between the cohorts in uncontrolled hypertension preoperatively (P = .39) or postoperatively (P = .63). However, more African Americans had uncontrolled hypertension at 30 days (African Americans, 49%; whites, 31%; odds ratio, 2.1; P = .09). African Americans were taking a greater number of antihypertension medications at presentation than whites (P = .01) and specifically had higher use rates of beta blockers (P = .02), diuretics (P = .02), and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (P = .04).

Conclusions:

African Americans with TBAD present at a younger age than their white counterparts do and have a survival advantage up to at least 5 years. However, African Americans have a higher rate of reintervention that is probably associated with poor blood pressure control despite taking more antihypertension medications both before and after the repair. It appears that optimal medical therapy is difficult to achieve in all groups. More aggressive medical management is needed, particularly more so in African Americans, which may in turn decrease the number of interventions and potentially improve long-term survival.

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