Patient characteristics and in-hospital outcomes of emergency carotid endarterectomy and carotid stenting after stroke in evolution

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The objective of this study was to describe characteristics and in-hospital outcomes of patients treated with carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS) for stroke in evolution (SIE) under routine conditions in Germany.


This secondary data analysis is based on the German statutory quality assurance database for carotid revascularization procedures. Patients with SIE who had undergone CEA or CAS were included. The primary outcome was any new stroke or all-cause death until hospital discharge. Descriptive statistics were calculated using statistical standard methods. To identify factors that are associated with the primary or secondary outcomes, a multilevel multivariable regression analysis was performed (exploratory approach).


Between 2009 and 2014, a total of 5058 patients (mean age, 70 ± 11 years; 68% male) with SIE were treated with CEA (n = 3176) or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty/CAS (n = 1882). The primary outcome occurred in 9.0% and 11.7% after CEA and CAS, respectively. The multivariable regression analysis revealed that age (per 10-year increase: risk ratio [RR], 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.50), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class (ASA class 4 and 5 vs ASA class 3: RR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.65-3.32), ipsilateral degree of stenosis (occlusion vs severe stenosis: RR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.29-2.79; low grade vs severe stenosis: RR, 3.06; 95% CI, 1.55-6.02), and neurologic deficit on admission (modified Rankin scale score of 3-5 vs 0-2: RR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.04-2.10) are significantly associated with the risk of stroke or death after emergency CEA for SIE. In patients treated with CAS, only age (per 10-year increase: RR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.37-1.82), ASA class (ASA class 1 and 2 vs ASA class 3: RR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.46-0.95; ASA class 4 and class 5 vs ASA class 3: RR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.31-2.78), and ipsilateral degree of stenosis (moderate vs severe stenosis: RR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.04-0.77; occlusion vs severe stenosis: RR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.18-2.25) were significantly associated with the primary outcome rate.


Emergency carotid revascularization is associated with a combined stroke or death rate of about 10% under routine conditions in Germany. Lower age, lower ASA class, moderate to high-grade stenosis, and less severe neurologic deficit preceding CEA potentially serve as protective factors.

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