Ethnic minorities with critical limb ischemia derive equal amputation risk reduction from autologous cell therapy compared with whites

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Abstract

Objective:

Ethnic minorities (nonwhites) with critical limb ischemia (CLI) have historically performed worse compared with whites with regard to major amputation risk reduction and amputation-free survival (AFS) after peripheral vascular intervention. This post hoc analysis was completed to determine whether this precedent also extended to treatment of CLI without a suitable revascularization option with intramuscular injections of concentrated bone marrow aspirate (cBMA).

Methods:

The treatment arm of the randomized, double-blind, multicenter MarrowStim PAD Kit for the Treatment of Critical Limb Ischemia in Subjects with Severe Peripheral Arterial Disease (MOBILE) trial was stratified by ethnicity and evaluated for demographics, comorbidities, and outcomes. The primary and therapeutic end point was 1-year AFS and major amputation, respectively. Noninferiority analysis was performed with the margin set at historically reported hazard ratios.

Results:

Thirty-seven minority (African American, Hispanic, other) CLI patients (9 placebo, 28 cBMA) with no suitable revascularization option were randomized to cBMA or placebo at a 3:1 ratio during the MOBILE trial. At 1-year follow-up for the treatment group, overall AFS was 80%. Of the 28 minority patients randomized to cBMA intervention, an 89% AFS rate was observed compared with 77% in whites. Specifically, 22 of 24 (92%) African Americans survived amputation free at 1-year follow-up. Noninferiority testing confirmed no difference between whites and the ethnic minority treated with cBMA with respect to major amputation reduction; however, noninferiority could not be confirmed with regard to AFS. No significant differences favoring whites treated with cBMA were noted in the secondary end points of vascular quality of life, limb pain, ankle-brachial index, toe-brachial index, transcutaneous oximetry, and 6-minute walk testing.

Conclusions:

This post hoc analysis of the MOBILE trial demonstrates noninferiority of cBMA intervention in minorities with no-option CLI for the therapeutic end point of major amputation prevention. cBMA represents a novel treatment paradigm and should be explored for minorities with poor revascularization options who face impending amputation secondary to progressive CLI.

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