Perioperative risk factors for hospital readmission after elective endovascular aortic aneurysm repair

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Abstract

Background

Elective endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is generally well tolerated. However, the incidence of hospital readmission after EVAR and the risk factors and reasons for it are not well studied. This study sought to determine the incidence, to characterize the indications, and to identify perioperative patient-centered risk factors for hospital readmission within 30 days after elective EVAR.

Methods

All patients who underwent EVAR electively in 2012 to 2013 were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Targeted Vascular database (n = 3886). Preoperative demographics, operation-specific variables, and postoperative outcomes were compared between those who were readmitted within 30 days of the index operation and those who were not. Multivariate logistic regression was then used to determine independent predictors of hospital readmission.

Results

The unadjusted 30-day readmission rate after EVAR was 8.2%. Of all readmissions, 55% were for reasons related to the procedure. Median time to readmission was 12 days. Significant preoperative risk factors associated with readmission were female sex, preoperative steroid use, congestive heart failure, and dialysis dependence (P < .05). Multiple postoperative medical complications were independently predictive of readmission, including myocardial infarction and deep venous thrombosis (P < .05). Surgical complications that were independently predictive of readmission were surgical site infection (odds ratio, 10.24; 95% confidence interval, 5.31-19.75; P < .01) and need for unplanned reoperation (odds ratio, 17.50; 95% confidence interval, 10.43-29.37; P < .01). Readmitted patients ultimately had significantly higher rates of 30-day mortality (3.5% vs 0.3%; P < .01).

Conclusions

Hospital readmissions remain a costly problem after vascular surgery and are associated with 30-day mortality after elective EVAR. Whereas female sex and certain irreversible medical comorbidities are nonmodifiable, focusing on medical optimization and identifying those perioperative variables that can affect the need for post-EVAR interventions will be an important step in decreasing hospital readmission.

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