Leukocyte activation and leukocyte procoagulant activities after blood contact with polystyrene and polyethylene glycol–immobilized polystyrene beads


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Abstract

Beads (45 μm) of polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene glycol modified PS (TentaGel) with an amino or hydroxyl terminal group were incubated with blood to assess the effect of surface area and material chemistry on leukocyte activation. After a 2-hour incubation, blood contact with beads activated leukocytes in the bulk (tissue factor expression, CD11b up-regulation, and association with platelets) independently of material surface chemistry. On the other hand, activation of adherent leukocytes was material dependent. After blood contact with PS, polyethylene glycol–immobilized PS (PS-PEG) and PS-PEG-NH2 beads, CD11b up-regulation in the bulk, platelet-leukocyte aggregates, and leukocyte adhesion were all dependent on surface area, whereas tissue factor (TF) expression was not. Material-induced leukocyte activation in the bulk was also independent of the beads' capacity to activate platelets. However, monocyte adhesion and TF expression on beads appeared to be related to the presence of platelets on the surface. Material-induced TF expression was able to initiate the extrinsic pathway of coagulation, resulting in significant fibrin formation. Although not all of our markers of leukocyte activation varied with material area or chemistry, it was clear that these materials activated leukocytes in a way that resulted in increased procoagulant activity. During blood-material interactions, material-induced leukocyte activation may then contribute to thrombogenesis. (J Lab Clin Med 2001;137:345-55)

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