A retrospective analysis of 123 pediatric tracheostomies reveals an overall complication rate of 33%. Immediate complications were present in 12% or 15 patients. The most frequent immediate complications were pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax. Delayed complications occurred in 24% or 30 patients. The most frequent delayed complications were subglottic stenosis, fused vocal cords, and tracheal granuloma. Four patients died because of tracheostomy-related complications. Age, underlying disease, and prior endotracheal intubation had a high degree of correlation with complications. The use of a mechanical respirator following tracheostomy did not appear to be significantly related to complications. Fifty percent of the delayed complications in this series were regarded as being unrelated to the tracheostomy or the trachesotomy tube itself.