Stenosis of the terminal tracheostome is a distressing complication of total laryngectomy. A retrospective analysis of 207 patients who underwent total laryngectomy is presented; an overall incidence of tracheostomal stenosis of 13% is reported. The incidence of tracheostomal stenosis is higher in females (26%), patients having immediate tracheoesophageal puncture (19%), pectoralis major myocutaneous flap pharyngeal reconstruction (26%), and tracheostomal infection (50%) which is shown to be significant (P<.05). However, on multivariate analysis, only female sex and tracheostomal infection are independent determinants. Recognition of these clinical factors identifies patients at increased risk of developing this complication and thus allows appropriate perioperative planning to minimize its incidence.