Laryngeal verrucous carcinoma (LVC) is a rare, well-differentiated variant of squamous carcinoma with a low malignant potential. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 DMA has been identified in a small number of LVC and an etiologic relationship has been suggested. A correlative clinical and molecular pathological study was performed in order to determine the prevalence and typing of HPV DNA in LVC. Possible associations between patient and tumor subsets, and the presence of HPV DNA were also investigated. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 29 patients with LVC were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using DNA primers specific for HPV types 6b/11, 16, and 18. Overall, HPV DNA was detected in 13 (45%) of the cases. Of these, HPV-16 DNA, HPV-18 DNA, and both HPV-16 DNA and HPV-18 DNA were detected in 4 (14% overall; 31% of positive cases), 4, and 5 (17% overall; 38% of positive cases), respectively. HPV-6b/11 DNA was not detected in any LVCs. In 16 cases, no HPV DNA was detected. There was a trend toward HPV DNA detection in higher stage tumors. HPV DNA detection was unrelated to patient age, tumor site, or radiotherapeutic responsiveness. The detection of HPV DNA in 45% of LVCs suggests an association between the presence of HPV-16 DNA and HPV-18 DNA, and some LVCs.