The function of the stria vascularis in the cochlea is believed to be the production of endolymph. The mechanisms that maintain or control the function of the stria vascularis, however, remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of one-shot reserpine administration on the NaK ATPase activity of the stria vascularis in guinea pigs were investigated. NaK ATPase activity was shown to be completely inhibited 3 to 20 days after reserpinization, and was detectable again 60 days after reserpinization. As reserpine is an adrenergic neuron blocker, these results suggest that catecholamines may play an essential role in the maintenance or control of NaK ATPase activity, and that the stria vascularis may be one of the target organs of catecholamines.