The authors investigated the process of denervation and reinnervation of the interarytenoid (IA) muscle in the guinea pig using transmission electron microscopy and glycogen depletion technique after unilateral transection of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) and superior laryngeal nerve to clarify the innervation pattern of the unpaired IA muscle. Anastomosis between the bilateral arytenoid branches was confirmed in the belly of the IA muscle. Five weeks after transection, all of the IA muscle fibers appeared to have been reinnervated by the contralateral RLN. As the arytenoid branch of the RLN runs together with that of the contralateral RLN in a single intramuscular nerve funiculus, it is possible that collateral sprouting branches grow and extend into the adjacent denervated Schwann's sheaths. The authors conclude that the unpaired IA muscle, as a whole, receives specific motor nerve supply from the bilateral RLNs, although each muscle fiber is innervated unilaterally.