Evidence-Based Practices: Applications of Concrete Representational Abstract Framework across Math Concepts for Students with Mathematics Disabilities

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Students with mathematics disabilities (MD) experience difficulties with both conceptual and procedural knowledge of different math concepts across grade levels. Research shows that concrete representational abstract framework of instruction helps to bridge this gap for students with MD. In this article, we provide an overview of this strategy embedded within the explicit instruction framework. We highlight effective practices for each component of the framework across different mathematical strands. Implications for practice are also discussed and a detailed case study is provided.

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