Specific polyclonal antibodies directed against the malolactic enzyme of Leuconostoc oenos were obtained. Despite the homologies between the malolactic enzymes from Leuc. oenos and Lactococcus lactis, no immunological relationship was detected with the L. lactis malolactic enzyme, suggesting differences in their structural organization. The use of the antiserum also demonstrated that the problem of heterologous expression occurring in the recombinant Escherichia coli strain (Labarre et al. 1996a) resulted in a low synthesis of the malolactic enzyme from Leuc. oenos. Moreover, a small amount of the protein was found to be peripherally associated to the membrane of Leuc. oenos.