Among 46 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus obtained from cattle in the State of Paraíba, Brazil, four were shown to produce antimicrobial substances (AMS). The two best AMS producers carried single plasmids of about 8.0 kbp and 50 kbp, respectively, which were designated pRJ34 and pRJ35. Curing experiments and molecular analysis associated the AMS production with the presence of these plasmids in the cells. The biochemical properties exhibited by the AMS suggested that they might be bacteriocins (Bac). The bacteriocin encoded by pRJ34 showed properties identical to those of the bacteriocins encoded by other small staphylococcal Bac plasmids. However, the bacteriocin encoded by the large plasmid pRJ35 has shown some properties which distinguish it from the other bacteriocins of Staph. aureus described so far, suggesting it may be a new member of the staphylococcal bacteriocin family.