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L.M. REESE, K.O. CUTLER AND C.E. DEUTCH. 1996. The sensitivity of wild-type Escherichia coli K-12 to a series of proline analogues was determined in cultures containing increasing concentrations of NaCl under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The bacteria were most sensitive to L-azetidine-2-carboxylate and L-thiazolidine-4-carboxylate. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for these compounds decreased progressively during osmotic stress, but the bacteria were much more sensitive to these proline analogues under aerobic conditions than during anaerobiosis. The reduced sensitivity under anaerobic conditions did not reflect degradation of the compounds in the culture medium. Since both urine and medullary renal tissue contain relatively low oxygen concentrations, these results raise doubts about the potential use of proline or glycine betaine analogues in treating urinary tract infections.