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A mouse model of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) stool colonization was used to study the effect of Bacillus coagulans, a biotherapeutic agent, on the density of colonization.VRE-colonized mice received orally administered B. coagulans (107 cfu) or saline daily for four days. For one VRE strain, the density of VRE at one and four days after treatment was 1·4 log10cfu g−1 lower in experimental vs. control mice (P =0·03), and 35% of experimental vs. 0% of control mice had no detectable VRE four days after treatment (P =0·03). For two additional strains, there was no statistically significant reduction of VRE density in the B. coagulans groups.B. coagulans therapy reduced the density of colonization for one of three VRE strains tested.This study suggests a potential role for biotherapeutic agents as a means to reduce the density of VRE intestinal colonization.