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Kloeckera apiculata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast species are dominant, respectively, at the early and at the following stages of wine fermentation. In the present study, PCR fingerprinting and NTS region amplification and restriction were applied as techniques for monitoring yeast population performing Aglianico of Vulture grape must fermentation.Thirty S. cerevisiae and 30 K. apiculata strains were typed by PCR fingerprinting with (GAC)5 and (GTG)5 primers and by complete NTS region amplification followed by restriction with Hae III and Msp I enzymes. S. cerevisiae strains generated two patterns with (GAC)5 primer, while (GTG)5 primer yielded a higher genetic polymorphism. Conversely, in K. apiculata Aglianico wine strains (GAC)5 and (GTG)5 primers generated the same profile for all strains. Restriction analysis of the amplified NTS region gave the same profile for all strains within the same species, except for one strain of S. cerevisiae.The PCR fingerprinting technique was useful in discriminating at strain level S. cerevisiae, particularly with the primer (GTG)5. RFLP patterns generated from the NTS region of the two species can be more easily compared than the patterns resulting from PCR fingerprinting, thus RFLP is more suitable for the rapid monitoring of the species involved in different stages of fermentation.The molecular techniques used allow discrimination of S. cerevisiae at strain level and monitoring of the ratio of S. cerevisiae/ K. apiculata during the fermentation process. Thus, their application can assure technological adjustments in a suitable time.