|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
To improve the efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 and its genetically modified (GM) derivatives by adding ammonium molybdate to control Meloidogyne javanica, the root-knot nematode in mungbean.Culture filtrate of P. fluorescens CHA0 and its GM derivative (antibiotic overproducing strain CHA0/pME3424 and antibiotic-deficient CHA89) obtained from nutrient broth yeast extract medium amended with 1, 2 or 4 mM of ammonium molybdate (NH4-Mo) caused substantial mortality of M. javanica juveniles in vitro. Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 or CHA0/pME3424 applied in conjunction with NH4-Mo caused greater reduction of nematode penetration in mungbean roots compared with the bacterial application alone. Ammonium molybdate at 4 mg kg−1 of soil along with CHA0 also enhanced plant height while shoot weight remained unaffected. Either used alone or in conjunction with NH4-Mo, strain CHA89 did not reduce nematode invasion compared with the controls. Bacterial strains did not differ significantly in their colonization potential in the mungbean rhizosphere. Efficacy of the biocontrol bacteria to control root-knot nematode was accentuated when soil was treated with NH4-Mo and zinc (both at 1 mg kg−1 of soil).The addition of ammonium molybdate enhances the production of nematicidal compounds by P. fluorescensin vitro and improves bacterial efficacy against root-knot nematode under glasshouse conditions.Application of minerals such as ammonium molybdate is appealing because they are cheap and can easily be applied under field conditions to improve biocontrol potential of the bacterial inoculants. They also significantly reduce the amount of biocontrol inoculant biomass required to achieve root-knot disease control, with a consequent reduction in cost.