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To investigate the genes involved in the nikkomycin biosynthesis and their molecular mechanism.A 0·9 kbp SmaI fragment was cloned and sequenced which contains a complete open reading frame designated sanC (GenBank accession no. AF228522). In search of database, the deduced product of sanC was not homologous with any known proteins. The disruption and complementation of sanC showed that sanC is essential for nikkomycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces ansochromogenes.sanC is a novel and essential gene involved in nikkomycin biosynthesis in S. ansochromogenes.