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To know the ultrastructural and biochemical differences of vegetative hyphae and fruit body initials in colonies of Pleurotus pulmonarius.Feulgen reagent was used to detects differentiation of hyphae. The intracellular laccases, proteases and β-1,3-glucanases activity, content of cytoplasmic protein, glycogen and glucans in the cell wall were evaluated in hyphae of fruit body initials and in vegetative hyphae. The thickness of hyphal walls of the vegetative hyphae was also evaluated. Substantial biochemical changes were observed in hyphae of different zones of the fruiting colony. Hyphae at the periphery had thinner walls than in the centre of the colony.Staining correlated with the enzymatic activity, protein, glycogen and glucans, in mycelium and in fruit body initials. The implications are that hyphal maturity in P. pulmonarius involves storage of glucans, in part at least, in the form of a thickened hyphal wall.