Avoidance of oxidative-stress perturbation in yeast bioprocesses by proteomic and genomic biostrategies?

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AimsBioprocess oxidative stress caused by many reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead to largely irreversible perturbation of yeast bioprocesses. These include the production of proteins derived from recombinant DNA yeast technology (aerobically grown Saccharomyces cerevisiae). These proteins include rennin, amyloglucosidases (glucamylases), interferons, interleukins, insulin, monoclonal antibodies, tissue plasminogen activators (t-PA), sexually transmitted disease antigens, and measles, mumps and rubella antigens, growth hormones, somatotropin, blood clotting factors VIII and XIII. In addition, there may be a demand for severe acute respiratory syndrome–coronavirus antigens, hepatitis A, B and C viral-selected antigens, HIV retroviral antigens, influenza antigens, trypanosomal antigens, and foot and mouth disease antigens. Prevention of oxidative stress has been achieved by application of antioxidant redox metalloenzymes such as superoxide dismutases (containing Cu/Zn cytosolic, Mn mitochondrial and Fe bacterial) glutathione peroxidases (and other Se-containing proteins and enzymes such as the thioredoxins), catalases (Fe-containing), cytochrome c peroxidases (Fe-containing), ceruloplasmins (Cu-containing), metallothionines (these cysteine thiol-rich proteins bind ions of cadmium and mercury) and tyrosinases(Cu-containing).Methods and ResultsROS are generated inadvertently by single metal valency couples such as FeII/FeIII and by FeIII/FeV present in 2700 (including 57 human) isoforms in cytochromes P450 mixed-function oxidases (EC 1·14·14·1; O2: mono-oxygenase NADPH/NADH requiring). In addition, mixed-metal couples such as valency unmatched forms in CuI/FeII and FeIII/MnIV can recycle electrons. Moreover, proteins/protein chaperone couples can recycle electrons, often where futile-recycling systems have been instigated. Furthermore, oxidized membrane phospholipids (R) can form ROOH (lipid hydroperoxides) and ROH (lipid alkoxides) that can generate ROS through Fenton chemistry (iron-catalysed) chain reactions. Utilization of chain-breaking antioxidants such as vitamin E (α-tocopherol) in the lipid phase and vitamin C (ascorbate) in the aqueous phase can terminate these ROS-producing reactions.ConclusionsThe main significance of the study is that proteomic strategies of relief from bioprocess perturbation by ROS of yeast fermentations (used to manufacture proteins required in the food and therapeutic bioindustries) may become possible through addition of selected proteins (including metalloenzymes). The main impact of the study is that the utilization of genetically modified (GM) yeast produced by recombinant DNA technology genomic strategies could circumvent the bioprocessing problems that otherwise result from the bioprocess perturbations: this is as a result of oxidative stress caused by ROS, which is avoidable by deployment of appropriate antioxidants such as vitamins E, C and D (and antioxidant proteins and enzymes often of microbial origin via recombinant DNA technology).

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