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To compare the populations of 81 mould species in homes in the USA and UK using mould-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (MSQPCR) technology.Dust samples were obtained from randomly selected homes in the UK (n = 11). The mould populations in British homes were compared with those found in typical homes (no visible mould) in the USA (in the state of Ohio, n = 45). Only 13 of 81 species screened showed significantly different concentrations in these two sets of home.Although only a small survey, the results suggest that typical mould profiles in the USA (Ohio) and British homes are very similar. Analysis of 26 mould indicator species revealed that the British homes fell into two clusters, tentatively identified as ‘atypical’ and ‘typical’ mould conditions.MSQPCR analysis of dust samples can provide an objective measure of indoor moulds which could lead to better management of their health effects.