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To determine the effect of osmotic stress on yeast and to investigate the protective role of horse gram flour during very high gravity (VHG) ethanol fermentation.Saccharomyces cerevisiae was inoculated into high sugar (30–40%, w/v) containing medium with and without supplementation of horse gram flour. The fermentation experiments were carried out in batch mode. The effect of 4 or 6% of horse gram flour to the medium on the metabolic behaviour and viability of yeast was studied. Significant increase in ethanol yield up to 50% and dramatic decrease in glycerol production up to 100% was observed in the presence of horse gram flour. The fermentation rate was increased from 3 to 5 days with increased viable cell count. The physical and chemical factors of horse gram flour may aid in reducing the osmotic stress of high gravity fermentation of ethanol as well as enhancing ethanol yield.It was found that horse gram flour not only reduced fermentation time but also enhanced ethanol production by better utilization of sugar.Production of high ethanol concentration by using VHG sugar fermentation eliminates the expensive steps in the conventional process and saves time.