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Construction of a recombinant vector that expresses VP292 protein of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and to exploit the possibility of obtaining the vaccine conferring protection against WSSV infection in shrimps.VP292 protein of WSSV was amplified from WSSV genomic DNA by PCR. The target 814 bp amplified product specific for VP292 protein was inserted in to pQE30 expression vector. The recombinant plasmid of VP292 protein was transformed and expressed in Escherichia coli under induction of isopropyl-1-1-thio-β-D-galactoside (IPTG) and the immunoreactivity of the fusion protein was detected by Western blot. Shrimp were vaccinated by intramuscular injection of the purified protein VP292 of WSSV and challenged for 0–30 days. Vaccination trial experiments show that two injections with recombinant VP292 (rVP292) protein induced a higher resistance, with 52% relative percentage survival value, in the shrimp at the 30th day postvaccination.The expression system of protein VP292 of WSSV with a high efficiency has been successfully constructed. Vaccination trials show significant resistance in the shrimp vaccinated twice with recombinant VP292.Results of this study prosper the development of WSSV protein vaccine against WSSV infection in shrimps.