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Vibrio harveyi, which now includes Vibrio carchariae as a junior synonym, is a serious pathogen of marine fish and invertebrates, particularly penaeid shrimp. In fish, the diseases include vasculitis, gastro-enteritis and eye lesions. With shrimp, the pathogen is associated with luminous vibriosis and Bolitas negricans. Yet, the pathogenicity mechanisms are imprecisely understood, with likely mechanisms involving the ability to attach and form biofilms, quorum sensing, various extracellular products including proteases and haemolysins, lipopolysaccharide, and interaction with bacteriophage and bacteriocin-like substances.