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To investigate the probiotic properties of Bacillus polyfermenticus SCD such as their adherence to Caco-2 cells and anticarcinogenic effects on human colon cancer cells and rat colon cancer carcinogenesis.The cell surface hydrophobicity and cell agglutination of B. polyfermenticus SCD was 64·04 ± 1·25% and 297·3 ± 8·7 mg ml−1, respectively. This strain was strongly adherent to Caco-2 cells. Bacillus polyfermenticus SCD was also found to inhibit the growth of colon cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner as detected by the MTT assay. After 10 weeks of B. polyfermenticus SCD supplementation with 3 × 106 CFU day−1 in F344 male rats, dimethylhydrazine-induced aberrant crypts and preneoplastic lesions decreased by 40% compared with the control rats.Bacillus polyfermenticus SCD has strong adherent properties in the colon, and anticarcinogenic effects in vitro and in vivo.These new findings on the characteristics of B. polyfermenticus SCD will be valuable in the evaluation of this commercial probiotic. Also, B. polyfermenticus SCD can be useful for the inhibition of colon cancer cells as an ingredient of medicinal foods or new drugs.