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Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809 is able to produce both tyramine and putrescine via tyrosine decarboxylase and agmatine deiminase enzymes, respectively, when cultured on synthetic media. The aims of this study were to assess the expression of L. brevis IOEB 9809 tdc and aguA1 genes, during wine fermentation and to evaluate the effect of substrate availability and pH on tdc and aguA1 expression, as well as on biogenic amine production and L. brevis viability.The relative expression of L. brevis IOEB 9809 tdc and aguA1 genes was analysed in wine by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) during a period of incubation of 30 days. Cell viability, pH values, putrescine and tyramine concentration were monitored throughout the experiments.The wine trials indicated that L. brevis IOEB 9809 is able to produce both tyramine and putrescine during wine fermentation. Increased cell viability was also observed in wine supplemented with tyrosine or agmatine. qRT-PCR analysis suggests a strong influence of substrate availability on the expression of genes coding for tyrosine decarboxylase and agmatine deiminase in L. brevis IOEB 9809. Less evident is the relationship between putrescine and tyramine production and tolerance to wine pH.To our knowledge, this study represents the first assessment of relative expression of L. brevis IOEB 9809 genes involved in biogenic amine production in wine. Furthermore, an effect of biogenic amine production on viability of L. brevis during wine fermentation was established.