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For the analysis of virulence factors produced and secreted by Bacillus anthracis vegetative cells during mammalian host infection, we evaluated the secretome of B. anthracis Sterne exposed to host-specific factors specifically to host body temperature.We employed a comparative proteomics-based approach to analyse the proteins secreted by B. anthracis Sterne under host-specific body temperature conditions. A total of 17 proteins encoded on a single chromosome and the pXO1 plasmid were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting. Multiple algorithms were used to predict the secretion mechanisms of the detected proteins in B. anthracis.Several putative virulence factors and known factors responsible for sporulation were differentially regulated, including CodY, pXO1-130 and BA1952, revealing insights into temperature cues in the B. anthracis secretome.This study identified temperature-regulated proteins. Further studies aimed at understanding the physical and functional roles of these proteins in infection and control by elevated temperatures will contribute to detection, diagnostics and prophylaxis.