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Reports suggest that Bacillus spp. can be used to increase plant growth and resistance to disease, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between Bacillus spp. and plant is not completely understood. In the present study, to clarify these underlying mechanisms, the interaction between Bacillus cereus and rice was investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Through comparative analysis, a total of 31 differentially expressed proteins were obtained upon B. cereus NMSL88 treatment, including 22 proteins that were up-regulated and nine that were down-regulated. These data indicated that certain proteins involved in plant growth and development were up-regulated, such as xyloglucan endotransglycosylase. Interestingly, proteins involved in defence were also up-regulated, including peroxidases, glutathione S-transferases and kinases. Thus, proteins associated with disease resistance characteristics were induced in the plants after exposure to B. cereus NMSL88. In addition, several proteins involved in protein and lipid metabolism showed significant changes in expression.The present study is the first report to reveal the molecular mechanisms involved in rice seedlings in response to inoculation with Bacillus cereus at the level of proteome. The results demonstrated that B. cereus NMSL88 can up-regulate the expression of proteins related to plant growth and defence, and lead to enhanced plant growth and disease resistance.