Antimicrobial potential of metabolites extracted from bacterial symbionts associated with marine sponges in coastal area of Gulf of Mannar Biosphere, India

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Marine coastal areas of India have vast diversity of sponges which harbours many endosymbiotic bacteria which are the source of many potential antimicrobial metabolites. This study focuses the screening and characterization of drug-producing bacteria symbiotically which are associated with marine sponges collected from Gulf of Mannar, South Coast India. Six different sponges were collected and they were identified on the basis of their morphology. The drug-producing isolates were screened by agar overlay method towards various clinical strains. The secondary metabolites were characterized and were found to be quinones, alkaloids, flavanoids and flavonyl glycosides. The metabolites showed significant inhibitory properties against clinical strains that were further identified as chromophoric and fluorophoric in nature. Ethyl acetate extracts of chromophore and floureophore substances showed significant inhibitory properties against Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Salmonella typhi respectively. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of theses isolates revealed that chomophore-producing strain were closely related to Pseudomonas spp. RHLB12, isolated from Callyspongia spp. and floureophore-producing bacteria was related to Bacillus licheniformis T6-1 which was isolated from Haliclona spp. Hence, our study demonstrated that antimicrobial metabolites extracted from symbiotic bacteria associated with marine sponges have high therapeutic potential against many bacterial pathogens including multidrug-resistant strains.Significance and Impact of the Study:This is the first study demonstrating antimicrobial potential of flurophoric and chromophoric metabolites extracted from bacterial biosymbionts associated with marine sponges. Our study has significant scope as Indian coastal area especially harbours vast varieties of sponges with novel secondary metabolites-producing organisms. The natural metabolites extracted from sponge-derived bacteria pave novel therapeutic remedy against various pathogens when most of them are emerged as extreme drug resistant superbugs.

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