Resistance towards the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib is poorly understood. We adapted the HL-60, ARH-77 and AMO-1 cell lines (myeloid leukemia, plasmocytoid lymphoma, myeloma) to bortezomib exceeding therapeutic plasma levels, and compared characteristics of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, alternative proteases and the unfolded protein response (UPR) between adapted cells and parental lines. Adapted cells showed increased transcription rates, activities and polypeptide levels of the bortezomib-sensitive β5, but also of the β2 proteasome subunit and consistently retained elevated levels of active β1/β5-type proteasome subunits in the presence of therapeutic levels of bortezomib. Bortezomib-adapted HL-60 cells showed increased expression and proteasome association of the 11S proteasome activator, and did not accumulate poly-ubiquitinated protein, activate the UPR or UPR-mediated apoptosis in response to bortezomib. The rate of protein biosynthesis was reduced, and the transcription of chaperone genes downmodulated. We did not observe major changes in the activities of TPPII, cathepsins or deubiquitinating proteases. We conclude that different types of bortezomib-adapted cell lines, including myeloma, show similar patterns of changes in the proteasomal machinery which result in residual proteasome activity in the presence of bortezomib and a quantitative balance between protein biosynthesis and destruction.